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Author Topic: Pig farming more lucrative than many livestock businesses  (Read 29300 times)
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« on: July 11, 2012, 06:39:19 AM »

Buying in stock and Moving and transporting pigs

Buying in stock
Be aware that bought-in-stock can bring disease onto your farm, so bringing in pigs is always a disease risk.

Weaners
Weaners are normally exchanged at 8 to 10 weeks of age (18 to 20 kg liveweight). Avoid buying runts or "poor doers". A suitable checklist is:

• Avoid hairy pigs. These have often had a hard cold start to life, they will be old for their age and probably suffering from illness, e.g. Pneumonia.

• Avoid scouring pigs. Any visual signs of loose faeces, dirty backsides or red inflamed areas are a warning to potential purchasers.

• Avoid pigs that cough, they have worms.

• Look for pigs with a bright appearance, clean skin and show a keen interest in both food and life in general.

• Avoid pigs that limp Try to obtain pigs that have been weaned at least a few days prior to transfer. Settle pigs into their new home quickly, unless they have recently been treated, treat for internal and external parasites. Introduce your feed gradually and if possible provide plenty of dry straw or other bedding.

Breeding sows
The purchase of breeding stock from either a known colleague or recognised pig breeder is recommended. Unless there is a genuine clearing sale, buying from a sale yards is a risky business, as you may well buy someone else's cull.

Buying unmated gilts is the safest option. This gives the young gilt time to become accustomed to the particular set of conditions on your unit (including the disease organisms). If purchased at 90 to 100 kg, they will be ready for mating in about a month.

Boars
Remember your boar has a major influence on the progeny (1 boar to 20 sows). So it’s worth while to choose a superior quality boar. Also successful breeding depends on a sound, vigorous boar. No stiffness or lameness should be apparent.

Moving and transporting pigs
Pigs can be difficult to move across open spaces, some equipment and forward planning are vital. Some golden rules are:
• Don't lose your temper, take a calm approach
• Use feed as a lure
• Carry something large, flat and solid like a piece of plywood.
• Use this to block escape routes, the theory being they won't go through what they can't see through.
Using raceways between buildings and paddocks is much easier.

Make sure trailers have solid sides and a provision for covering in rain. The "wind chill" effect on pigs loaded in an open trailer can be detrimental even over short distances, (equate it to sitting in your shirt sleeves and you'll find it cool even on a warm day). Add straw bedding if travelling any distance. Far too many pigs come to an untimely end due to pneumonia because of poor transport practices.

An approximate meal feeding scale is:
Weaners, 1.0 kg daily
Growing pigs 25 kg 1.3 kg daily
45 kg 2.0 kg daily
65 kg 3.0 kg daily
85 kg 3.5 kg daily
Breeding sows and boar 2.5 - 3.0 kg daily
Suckling sows 2.5 kg plus 0.5 kg per piglet

Why do you (want to) keep pigs?
• As a means of generating some money
• As part of your "small farming system"
• Simply because you like pigs

Whatever your reason and regardless of the number of pigs kept, being a pig farmer means you will have
obligations to:
• Your stock
• Your neighbours
• Your family and friends
• Established Pork producers
• Others who handle or process your pigs

Can you say yes to this check list?

• Do you like working with pigs
• Can you cope with the daily commitment they will require?
• Have you checked on the legal requirements for buildings, effluent?
• Is there a market for what you intent to produce?


Pigs must not be allowed to live in unsightly and unhealthy conditions, from which environmental pollution in any of its various forms can cause a significant effect. Potential problems can generally be averted by first considering these points:
• Building and effluent collection system design
• Management practices and level of farm skills
• Hygiene standards
• Distance from neighbours
• Soil type and drainage
• Landscaping
Efficient and effective management practices are all positive ways to avert potential problems. Examples include:
• Using electric fencing to control rotational grazing and avoiding water ways
• Sensible stocking rates
• Effective separation of stock from their dung and urine, or alternatively provision of a deep litter system in which good composting takes place.
• Using accurate and tidy feeding systems
• Maintaining buildings
• Boundary tree planting
Pigs produce from 3 to 10 litres of effluent daily, depending on their size. This may double or even triple depending on the type of diet being fed and the volume of water used for cleaning.

Deep litter systems
Deep litter systems can use straw or sawdust or a combination. The principal requirement is a restriction on water intake and no spillage into the bedding.

This system also requires a larger floor area per pig. Success depends on the understanding of the key principles involved and good day-to-day management.
This includes:
• Area 1 to 1.3m2 per growing pig, sawdust minimum 600 mm deep.
• New bedding must be dry before application.
• Weekly management requires removal of litter wet spots, routine litter replacement and the forking over of the whole pen to avoid compacting, as this limits microbial activity.
• The health programme needs regular maintenance, litter is a haven for lice and fleas.



Those who don’t like pig needs to be educated on the advantages of promoting pig production for the local and international markets in altorder to enhance its contribution to the Nigerian economy.”

animal science and health management experts like Professor Istifanus Dafwang and Professor Placid Njoku have shed more light on some of the factors affecting pig production and consumption in the country, saying if such constraints were removed, pig production apart from enhancing the economy would also help Nigerians to have access to cheap, good meat thereby increasing their protein consumption.

The experts also enumerated some constraints to pig production in the country, just as they reeled off some prospects or advantages/benefits of engaging in pig farming.

Some of the enumerated constraints and fortunes of pig farming are highlighted below:
•Religious opposition to pig production and consumption — Nigeria has a large population of Muslims who constitute the majority in most states of the North-West and North-East zones. Also, with the growth of islamic fundamentalism, opposition to pig is very significant and sometimes finds its way into policy decisions at state and federal levels” Prof. Dafwang stated.

The solution to this constraint as explained by Professor Dafwang of the National Agricultural Extension and Rural Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, is for the state Ministries of Agriculture to educate the public the need to promote pig production for those who consume it in order to reduce the pressure on other meat sources and in essence, make these available at cheaper rate to non-pork consumers.

•Marketing — At present, live animal sales constitute the primary marketing channel for the disposal of pigs its producers. The present conditions for transportation, handling and selling of pigs as explained by the don, are subject to many problems which compromise animal welfare and public health considerations.

The mind boggling problems associated with inter-state transportation of pigs and other live animals are and would require the cooperation of relevant agencies of government at all levels, that is, the multiplicity of road marshals and other security agencies that man Nigerian roads, the livestock industry professionals, marketers and transporters to proffer a lasting solution.

“In his words, there are 10 problems identified by me and other experts, but the top five were lack of capital, high cost of transportation, lack of standardisation, lack of functional abattoirs and lack of storage facilities. All these have to do with the need to provide adequate market infrastructural facilities,” Professor Dafwang emphasised.

•Disease outbreaks and effects of African Swine Fever (ASF) — The African Swine Fever (ASF), caused by a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus belongs to the Asfarviridae family, and it is a highly contagious viral disease of domesticated pigs, which is often characterised by widespread haemorrhages and very high mortality.

While pigs are affected by many diseases, ASF stands out as the most devastating in the country.

The other disease that had significantly affected the Nigerian pig industry is anthrax, and this disease was responsible for wiping out the Nigerian breed of pigs developed by Professor Adebambo at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Ibadan, Oyo State in 1993.

Other constraints to pig production and consumption as enumerated by Professors Dafwang and Placid Njoku were lack of technical assistance and inaccessibility of pig farmers to credit facilities.

These two constraints constitute the major farm level problems of the farmer at the farmland. This is not surprising because pig production technology was an introduction of the agricultural extension service. Extension workers train farmers in the technical aspects of production management and offer advisory services in addition to facilitating farmers’ access to improved inputs”.

Technical assistance, the don explained is also critical for meeting the other needs for ensuring on improvement in housing and sanitation, buying of feed ingredients and facilitation of access to credit,” he stated.

•Prospects of pig production — The unbeatable prolific fecundity of the pig and its ability to subsist on a very wide range of feed resources including crop residues, kitchen wastes, and agro-industrial by-products, which have limited alternatives uses are factors of comparative advantage which can be tapped to increase the supply of pig meat (pork).

An abundance of pork, the don further emphasised, will naturally reduce the pressure on beef and other meat products and so the Nigerian economy as a whole will be the greatest benefactor of any policy that will lead to the expansion of pig production and marketing.

Other advantages that distinguished pigs from other meat producing animals as enumerated by the don include;
•Higher carcass yield of 70 per cent compared to that of between 50 and 55 per cent for ruminants. In addition, Pig carcasses have a higher proportion of edible meat.

•Pig meat is easier to dress, more tender and has superior curing qualities, an obvious advantage for the production of value-added products.

•The pig has a very large caecum, which facilitates post intestinal digestion, the droppings of pigs is also rich in nutrients and so can be used as a good source of fertiliser for crop production.

“It is therefore not surprising that 95 per cent of farmers found pig production to be a profitable venture and it will continue to be so if farmers are given a policy environment that will minimise the problems highlighted,” the don further posited.

Furthermore, Professor Dafwang asserted that the higher feed efficiency and carcass yield of pigs have made pork to be 25 to 200 per cent cheaper than beef and goat meat all over the country. He also advocated for public education and enlightenment on the nutritional advantages of pork to Nigerians and how pig farming can bring good income for farmers, stressing that the pig industry in Nigeria would continue to grow with the demand for pork and the outstanding biological traits of the pig which confers upon it comparative advantage over other farm animals for meat production.

“Those who don’t like pig need to be educated on the advantages of promoting pig production for the local and international markets in order to enhance its contribution to the Nigerian economy. Most people are not aware that since pork is cheaper than beef, encouraging pork production and consumption will reduce the pressure on the demand for beef, leading to making beef more available and even at lower cost.”

Moreover, the don said the problem militating against increasing pig production can best be addressed by government, if government put in place policies that will facilitate a close interaction between pig farmers, private sector, initiatives and marketers in order to sustain and expand the industry.

http://tribune.com.ng/index.php/agriculture/34393-pig-farming-more-lucrative-than-many-livestock-businesses



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CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 How to start pig farming business
Breeds and breeding
Choice of Breed
Selection of Breeding Gilts
Selection of Breeding Boars
Breeding Programs - Breeding models
Management of Breeding Stock
Farrowing and birth management
Farrowing preparation measures and birth of piglets
Birth of piglets
Problems related to the birth

CHAPTER 2 Piglet management
Feeding piglets whose mother does not produce enough milk
Teeth Trimming
Anaemia or Iron deficiency
Tail Docking
Splaylegged Piglets
Rearing motherless piglets
Feeding program
Weaning piglets
Problems at weaning

CHAPTER 3 Housing/Construction details of a piggery
Floor
Feeder and waters
Wall
Roof
Wallowing tank
Feeding passage
Cleaning passage
Drainage
Sewage tank
Compost pits
Room Arrangement
Surroundings
Determining The Number Of Pens And Stalls Required In A Pig Unit
Determining the number of places for replacement stock
Determining the number of places in the growing / finishing accommodation
Layout of the piggery

CHAPTER 4 Feeding pigs
Feed sources
Making Rations
Other Alternative Feed Resources to Assist to Reduce Feed Cost
Daily Feed Requirements
Pig feed formula
Feeding rates by age and expected weight

CHAPTER 5 Common pests and diseases in pigs
Symptoms, Prevention and treatment
General recommendation
Responsible use of vaccines and vaccination in pig production
Worming Recommendations For Pigs
Six Steps To Antibiotic Selection For Nursery And Finishing Disease
Water medication for pigs


CHAPTER 6
Buying in stock,
Moving and transporting
PIG FARMING GLOSSARY


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Keys to Success
Products
Financial Considerations

CHAPTER TWO Company Summary
Start-up Summary
Market
Location   

CHAPTER THREE Products And Services
Introduction
Breeds of pigs
Breeding sow
Boar
Mating pigs
Pregnant sow
Management of piglets
 Constructing pig pens

CHAPTER FOUR Feeding Pigs
Feeds requirement
Feeding program for different sizes of pigs
Commercial feed
Growing pig feeds at the farm
Feed preparation at the farm

CHAPTER FIVE Market Analysis And Strategies
In t r o d u c t i o n
Market Segmentation
Market Needs
Competition and Buying Patterns
Self-assessment
Roadside stands and on-farms stores
Intermediate Marketing
Advantages and disadvantages of sales to intermediate buyers
Restaurants and grocery stores
Institutional Marketing Service
Consistent Supply
Brokers and Distributors
Advantages of working with a distributor
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Pricing
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Price Based on the Retail Price
Branding, labelling, and third-party certification
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Finding Farmers

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Manpower requirements   
manpower plan   
man power budget   
roles and responsibilities

CHAPTER SEVEN Swot Analysis
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats

CHAPTER EIGHT   Financial Plans
Application of funds 
Operating and maintenance costs budget
Financial Plan/Projected profit on 50 Females 10 Males in 12months

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« Last Edit: July 06, 2016, 05:18:03 AM by moderator1 » Logged

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